TRANSLATION STRATEGIES, METHODS AND TECHNIQUES: IN PURSUIT OF TRANSLATION ADEQUACY
The present paper examines the ways of achieving adequacy in translation. The aim of the study is to define and describe the options that the different translators choose while rendering the message of the same source text (ST) and to establish the translation adequacy conditions. The translators’ options are considered in terms of the techniques employed to achieve equivalence between the textual micro units of the original and those of the target text (TT). It is argued that the choice of the translation techniques is determined by the global translation strategy which is seen as a translator’s action plan to reach the functional identification between the ST and TT. In the course of translating the corresponding techniques are used by the translators to fit the local strategies which necessitate the specific ways of dealing with translation challenges. In order to identify formal, semantic and communicative features of the translators’ options we set out the specific task of exploring the notions of translation strategy, translation method, translation technique and translation equivalence and define their significance in achieving accuracy and/or transparency of translation and, eventually, the adequacy of translation. The study is based on the descriptive and comparative analyses of four translation cases (TTs). The examination of the English-Ukrainian correlative units intends to indicate the types of equivalents and point out their contribution to the translation adequacy. One of the important findings to emerge from the study is that translation adequacy may be measured against the TT acceptability which is considered on four levels and involves correlations between structural, semantic and pragmatic equivalents. The TT that reaches the first level of acceptability is viewed as the case of low translation adequacy; the TT on the second level of acceptability is seen as the case of near adequate translation; the TT on the third level of acceptability is termed as sufficiently adequate translation; the TT on the forth level of acceptability is defined as the case of complete adequate translation.
Bell, Roger T. 1991. “Translation Theory: Where Are We Going?” Meta, 31 (4): 403–415.
Catford, John C. 1965. A Linguistic Theory of Translation: an Essay in Applied Linguistics. London: Oxford University Press.
Chesterman, Andrew. 1997. Memes of Translation: The Spread of Ideas in Translation Theory. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Hatim, Basil, and Mason, Ian. 1990. Discourse and the Translator. London: Longman.
Hatim, Basil, and Mason, Ian. 1997. The Translator as Communicator. London/New York: Routledge.
Jaaskelainen, Ritta. 1999. Tapping the Process: an Explorative Study of Cognitive and Effective Factors Involved in Translating. Joensuu: University of Joensuu. Publication in Humanities.
Jaaskelainen, Ritta. 2005. Translation Studies: What Are They? Retrieved November 11, 2006 from http:// www.hum expertise workshop.
Koller, Werner. 1995. “The Concept of Equivalence and the Object of Translation Studies”. Target, 7(2): 191-222.
Larson, Mildred L. 1984. Meaning-Based Translation: A Guide to Cross-Language Equivalence. Lanham, MD. University Press of America.
Lörscher, Wolfgang. 1991. Translation Performance, Translation Process and Translation Strategies. Tubingen: Gutner Harr.
Lörscher, Wolfgang. 2005. The Translation Process: Methods and Problems of Its Investigation. Meta, 50(2): 597–608.
Molina, Lucia and Albir, Amparo Hurdado. 2002. Translation Techniques Revisited: A Dynamic and Functional Approach. Meta, XLVII (4): 498–512.
Neubert, Alfred. 1985. Text and Translation. Leipzig: Enzyklopadie.
Newmark, Peter. 1988. A Textbook of Translation. New York/London/Toronto/Sydney: Prentice Hall International.
Newmark, Peter. 1991. About Translation: Multilingual Matters. Clevedon, Philadelphia, Adelaide: Multilingual Matters, Ltd.
Nida, Eugene A. 1964. Towards a Science of Translating. Leiden: E.J. Brill.
Nida, Eugene A. 1991. Theories of Translation. Language and Culture in Translation Theories, 4 (1): 19–31.
Nida, Eugene A., and Taber Charles R. 1969/1982. The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden; E.J. Brill.
Owji, Zohre, M. A. 2013. “Translation Strategies: A Review and Comparison of Theories”. Translation Journal, 17(1). http:/www.translationjournal.net/journal/63theory. htm
Ordudary, Mahmoud. 2007. “Translation Procedures, Strategies and Methods”. Translation Journal, 11(3). http:/www.bokorlang.com /journal/41culture. htm
Robinson, Douglas. 2005. Becoming a Translator; An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation. London/New York: Routledge.
Sanjun, Sun. 2012. Strategies of Translation. http:/www.sanjun.org/translationStrategies. htm
Senguinot, C. 1989. The Translation Process. Toronto: H.G .Publications.
Tardzenyuy, Ngoran, C. 2016. Revisiting Translation Strategies and Techniques. International Journal of Comparative Literature and Translation Studies 4 (4): 48–56. http:/www.journal.aiac.org.au./
Venuti, Lawrence. 1998. Strategies of Translation. Edited by Mona Baker. Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies: 200–244. London: Routledge.
Vinay, Jean-Paul, and Darbelnet, Jean. 1958/2000. A Methodology for Translation. Edited by Lawrence Venuti. The Translation Studies Reader: 84-95. London: Routledge.