NEUROLINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING IN SPORTS
Keywords:Neurolinguistic programming, sports, performance, interventions, communication, language
In this article, we examine the literature presented on the use of neurolinguistic programming (NLP) in the world of sports. The techniques have been applied with success in a number of occasions at different skill levels to improve performance. NLP operates on the principle that human beings have the capacity to set and achieve their goals, and gives a framework in which these objectives can be attained. These principles have been observed in both a theoretical and practical way in relation to sports. In the first part of the article, we review the theoretical literature on the topic. From a theoretical standpoint, scholars have asserted that the perception of reality through the senses plays an important role, and this perception can be influenced by the language we use. Clear communication in teaching is vital for training athletes to reach their potential. In the second part, we look at applications of NLP in different spheres of sports and the way it is applied to real athletes with certain obstacles hindering their progress. We attempt to summarize this literature and present a potential path for future research. There have been criticisms of NLP, so it is important to consider them in an unbiased way, giving thought to what can be done in the future to give answer to them.
Adlam, Chris. 2015. “A Short History of NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming)”. Accessed May 5, 2020. Mode of access: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/short-history-nlp-neuro-linguistic-programming-chris-adlam#:%7E:text=It%20is%20generally% 20agreed%20that,old%20psychology%20student%20at%20U.C.&text=Bandler%20also%20modelled%20the%20work,he%20known%20as%20gestalt%20therapy.
Ahmadzadeh, Shiva & Rokhsareh. Badami and Asghar Aghaei. 2019. “The Effectiveness of Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) on Shooters’ Mental Skills and Shooting Performance”. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 13, no. 3. https://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ijpbs.84124
Bailey, Richard & Madigan, Daniel, and Ed Cope, and Adam Nicholls. “The Prevalence of Pseudoscientific Ideas and Neuromyths Among Sports Coaches”. Movement Science and Sport Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00641
Bashir, Asan and Ghani Mamuna. 2012. “Effective Communication and Neurolinguistic Programming”. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences, Vol. 6 (1): 216–222. Mode of access: https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/188052/1/ pjcss085.pdf
Draeger, Lars. 2013. Navy SEAL Training Guide: Mental Toughness. Special Operations Media.
Grosu, Vlad & Rusu, Alina and Emilia Grosu. 2013 “Neurolinguistic Programming Techniques in Sports Training for Enhancing Performance Capacity”. Palestrica of the Third Millennium – Civilization and Sport, Vol. 14 (3): 212–218. Mode of access: https://pm3.ro/pdf/53/RO/14%20-%20grosu%20212-218.pdf
Grosu, Vlad and Emilia Grosu, Popovici, Cornelia & Mihaiu Cotinel. 2015. “Sensory Sub-Modalities Testing in Neurolinguistic Programming, Part of Mental Training”. Timisoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal, Vol. 7 (14): 7–12. https://doi.org/10.1515/tperj-2015-0001
Lazarus, Jeremy. 2010. Successful NLP for the Results You Want, 37–49. Richmond: Crimson Business Ltd.
Mahoney, John & Ntoumanis, Nikos and Daniel Gucciardi, Cliff Mallett, and Juliette Stebbings. “Implementing an Autonomy-supportive Intervention to Develop Mental Toughness in Adolescent Rowers”. Journal of Applied Sports Psychology, Vol. 28: 199–215. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2015.1101030.
NLP World. 2018. “NLP Rapport NLP World – Glossary – R – Rapport”. Mode of access: www.nlpworld.co.uk/nlp-glossary/r/rapport.
Saunders, Dawn Elizabeth. 2009. “A Psycho Educational Programme for Cricket Players Using Neuro-Linguistic Programming”. PhD diss., Stellenbosch University. Accessed Dec. 1st, 2022. Mode of access: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/1164
Savardelavar, Meisam and Hooshang Bagheri. 2012. “Using NLP in Sport Psychology: Neurolinguistic Programming Effects on Boxer State-Sport Confidence by Using Meta-Models Method”. European Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 2(5): 1922–1927. Accessed Nov. 20th, 2022. Mode of access: https://www.primescholars.com/ articles/using-nlp-in-sport-psychology-neurolinguistic-programming-affects-on-boxer-statesport-confidence-by-using-metamodels-method.pdf
Savardelavar, Meisam and Garry Kuan. 2017. “The Use of Neurolinguistic Programming as an Educational -Therapeutic Program: Two Case-Studies”. Education in Medicine Journal, Vol. 9(1): 49–58. https://doi.org/10.21315/eimj2017.9.1.5
Walter, Joanne and Ardeshir Bayat. 2003 “Neurolinguistic Programming: Verbal Communication”. British Medical Journal, Vol. 326 (7389): 83. https://doi.org/10.1136/sbmj.0305163
Zeb, Faiza and Ansa Hameed. 2021. “An Implication of Milton Model of NLP for ESL learners”. The Asian EFL Journal, Vol. 28 (1.2.): 196–219. Mode of access: http://repository.psau.edu.sa:80/jspui/handle/123456789/5168898